Early antiviral response in the nose may determine the severity of COVID-19. The course of severe COVID-19 may be determined by the body’s antiviral response to early infections, according to studies that open new avenues for early drug intervention that may prevent severe illness.
Early antiviral response in the nose may determine the severity of COVID-19:
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard University in the United States have analyzed whether the path to severe illness can begin much earlier than expected.
They studied cells taken from a patient’s nasal swab at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis and progressed to more serious illness with patients who developed mild COVID-19 and eventually needed respiratory assistance. We compared the patients who did.
The findings, published in the journal Cell, show that patients with severe COVID-19 are far more muted with cells collected from early cotton swabs than patients with a mild illness course. It showed that it showed a reaction.
“Our findings show that the course of severe COVID-19 may be determined by the body’s unique antiviral response to early infections, opening new avenues for early intervention that can prevent severe illness. “Suggests,” said Jose Ordovas-Montanes, co-lead author of the study. From Harvard Medical School.
To understand the initial response to the infection, the team collected nasal swabs from 58 people.
The 35 swabs are from COVID-19 patients taken at diagnosis and represent a variety of medical conditions, from mild to severe.
The team isolated individual cells from each sample, sequenced them, and searched for RNA that showed what proteins the cells were making. This is a proxy to understand what a particular cell is doing at the time of collection.
Cells use RNA as a command to make proteins. These are the tools, machines, and building blocks that cells use to perform various functions and respond to their environment.
By studying intracellular RNA collections (transcriptomes), researchers understand how cells respond to environmental changes, such as viral infections, at that particular moment.
Researchers can also use the transcriptome to see if individual cells are infected with an RNA virus such as SARS-CoV-2.
First, the team found that the antiviral response caused by a family of proteins called interferon was much suppressed in patients who continued to develop severe COVID-19.
Both of these findings show that the course of COVID-19 is early or very early in nasal epithelial and immune cells, as these samples were taken long before COVID-19 reached the peak state of the patient’s disease. It shows that it may be determined by the initial reaction virus.
Due to the lack of a strong initial antiviral response, the virus spreads more rapidly, is more likely to move from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract, and recruitment of inflammatory immune cells can promote dangerous inflammation of serious illness.
The team also identified infected host cells and pathways associated with defense against infection, cells, and responses specific to patients who continued to develop the mild disease.
These discoveries may allow researchers to discover new therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections.
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